The policy and donations of Charlemagne are
carefully examined by St. Marc, (Abrege, tom. i. p.
390-408,) who has well studied the Codex Carolinus. I
believe, with him, that they were only verbal. The most
ancient act of donation that pretends to be extant, is that
of the emperor Lewis the Pious, (Sigonius, de Regno Italiae,
l. iv. Opera, tom. ii. p. 267-270.) Its authenticity, or at
least its integrity, are much questioned, (Pagi, A.D. 817,
No. 7, &c. Muratori, Annali, tom. vi. p. 432, &c.
Dissertat. Chorographica, p. 33, 34;) but I see no
reasonable objection to these princes so freely disposing of
what was not their own.]
The History Of The Decline And
Fall Of The Roman Empire
—Fall In The East